Especially in the industrial areas, countries are suffered by the harmful acid rain. The atmosphere is polluted by different oxides of non metals like CO, CO2, NO, NO2, N2O5, SO2, SO3, P2O5, As2O3 etc produced from industries, factories. These non metallic oxides combine with water in the atmosphere to form acids and fall in the form of droplets on the earth surface which is called as acid rain.
Reactions of formation of acid rain from different non metallic oxides are
2NO + H2O→2HNO2 nitrous acid
2NO2 + H2O→HNO3 + HNO2
SO2 + H2O→H2SO3 (sulphurous acid)
SO3 + H2O → H2SO4
P2O5 + 3H2O→2H3PO4 (ortho phosphoric acid)
CO2 + H2O → H2CO3 (carbonic acid)
Effects of acid rain
Acid raining is becoming more tremendous problem and challenge for coming generation. Developed industrial countries are affected badly till now but other countries will be victimized by acid rain very soon. Natural scenery, natural beauties, fertile lands, forests,grassy lands and artificial creations are going to be destroyed day by day.
Some of the adverse effects of acid rain are,
- It increases the acidity of soil which becomes unfit for crops production.
- It destroys forests, grassy lands and fertile lands.
- Causes stone leprosy.
- It destroys Buildings, marbles and wooden materials, statues and sculptures, Historical places etc.
- It corrodes metallic materials, pipes etc.
- Natural beauties like mountains, falls, rivers, coastal areas etc are destroyed.
- It disturbs the terrestrial, arboreal as well as aquatorial ecosystems.
- It causes sterility in animals, pieces, birds and retards production of vegetation.
- It can be controlled by applying alternative sources of energy instead of coal and gasoline.
- It can be controlled by banning of use of high fuel consuming vehicles, motor, lorry, vans.
- Can be controlled by removing old and low quality machine.
- It can be minimized by planting green trees on the road way sides and near industrial areas.
- It can be controlled by treating smoke of industries with suitable metals.
- World wide campaign of awareness must be run.